The Carrot Law
Mockus wasn't finished. There were 70 homicides for every 100,000 people - far, far too high.
Instead of trying to confront the whole populous with PSAs, instead of confronting the symptoms by increasing penalties for public intoxication, he simply halted the problem at its source.
Mockus sent out the mandate: Bars must close at 1am. Fewer drunks. Less drunk. In bed earlier.
He called it The Carrot Law - slang for someone who doesn't smoke for drink. And it worked.
Likewise, the Heath brothers assert the power of small changes in Switch. And that these small changes can have a huge impact.
"It's a theme we've seen again and again - big changes come from a succession of small changes. It's OK if the first changes seem almost trivial...With each step, the Elephant [your emotional urge] feels less scared and less reluctant, because things are working." (page 147)
Other tactics complimented The Carrot Law. Police were reeducated in non-violent tactics - not broad "interactions" as a whole, but each small interaction with citizens.
In addition to violence in the community, Mockus also focused on violence originating in the home. Children were encouraged to report offenders in their own families and taught to direct their anger at inanimate object.
The belief in the administration was that violence in the home was just repeated in the streets. This was a full-scale, city-wide re-direction of aggression.
Maybe it sounded crazy went it started. But in the 4 years under Mockus, the number of deaths was reduced by 1/3 and kept going down afterwards.
Enrique Penalosa - A Businessman For Urban Design
Mayors in Bogotá are restricted to one term, so after Mockus, newly party-less Enrique Penalosa became the city's second independent mayor.
Unlike the professorial Mockus, Penalosa was a businessman. But he'd promised to continue the work Mockus began.
Traffic volume was still a problem and Penalosa was pressured to build expensive elevated highways. But that wouldn't have fixed the problem - just moved the problem into the sky.
Instead, he urged rejection of the expensive elevated highways and, instead, poured that money into both improving public transportation as well as completely altering the highways.
When he started, public transportation fought for space amongst the cars and trucks. But in Penalosa's plan, the car lanes became bus lanes. And the buses were refurbished into beautiful modern vehicles.
You could still drive a car, but it'd be even more crowded than before, as you were pushed to the side lanes. And as you're baking in your car, thinking about the gas money you're burning, you'd look over to the bus lanes, gliding along in comfort. Pretty persuasive, don't you think?
Penalosa wasn't cracking down or forbidding anything. Instead, he smoothed the path he wanted people to go on.
People aren't bad; they just usually take the easier route. In this case, quite literally, the easiest route was by bus.
The Heaths cite another executive changing different behavior through similar means.
"'We're taught to focus on incentives by our business background,' say Bregman [a successful change agent]. 'Or even our parents: "Do this or you won't get your allowance!"' But executives - and parents - often have more tools than they think they have. If you change the path, you'll change the behavior." (page 185)
In just 36 months, the Penalosa administration went from idea to the first fleet on the road. The result: less traffic, less pollution, and less class conflict (between those with cars and those without).
Now, 1.6M Bogotáns travel by public transport every day and another 400,000 use their bikes. Overall, traffic has decreased by 22%.
Can't Argue With Results
Mockus, the professor. Penalosa, the businessman. Two very different men working toward their goals through very unusual means.
But you can't argue with the results. These days, 98.5% of kids in Bogotá go to school. Since 1994, homocide dropped 70%.
The most important lesson in my mind is that these were men who believed that change was possible - they believed it fundamentally, deep into their bones.
The Heaths call it a "growth mindset." (page 164) No matter the name - and no matter how cheesy it sounds sometimes - the first step in creating change is believing it's possible.
How are you going to create change? Which of these lessons resonate with you?
I'd love to hear your thoughts in the comments section. Thanks for reading!
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Image courtesy of lornapips via Flickr